The prevalence of medical problems during pregnancy is increasing due to a complex interplay between demographic and lifestyle factors, and advances in modern medicine. Women are delaying motherhood until later in life.

Diet is recognized as one of the main factors influencing embryo and fetus development, as well as maternal health. In particular, micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with a significantly high number of reproductive risks, ranging from infertility to fetal structural defects.

Other known causes of inability to conceive include missed periods, chlamydia, endometriosis, or pelvic inflammation.