All suspected kidney stones should be investigated by a doctor to establish the nature of the stones. The type of stone will be a result of diet, genetic and lifestyle influences. In all cases, dissolved salts in the urine crystallize out of solution to form stones. This occurs most rapidly when urine is alkaline as opposed to acidic. Factors contributing to stone formation include too little potassium in the diet, too much salt, insufficient fruit and vegetables and a deficiency in magnesium.
For oxalate stones it may be necessary to reduce intake of oxalic acid found in tea, coffee, spinach, rhubarb and beetroot and limit intake of animal protein. Avoid refined carbohydrates (particularly sugar). Drink plenty of water (2 to 3 liters daily) and if overweight, it is advisable to diet. For uric acid stones, a diet high in citrus fruits and vegetables which produces alkaline urine should help prevent stones forming.